This article discusses the phenomena that play an important role in the distribution of power within international relations, emphasizing the environmental variables as a new factor tending to change the distribution. The global distribution of power was historically characterized by the possession of natural resources, economic and military, these conditions are crisscrossed throughout most of history. From the appearance of nuclear weapons and, in particular, of the cold war, mankind lived at the mercy of the uncertainty that the conflict generated. In this sense, the possibility of nuclear war resting upon some state officials who possessed these weapons. Only one error would have triggered the disaster.
However, the ultimate decision lay in actors (apparently) rational, implying a process and decision-making strategy. Within this reality, it should note that those who held the possibility of using this technology, were those who had developed. This type of phenomena (the possession and possible use of nuclear weapons) can be classified conceptually as phenomena of “first generation”. In this context, the analytical frameworks focused on political and ideological rivalries (east – west) and the variables addressed in greater or lesser degree the possession of military and economic resources. With the advent of globalization and the end of the confrontation between the two blocs, new scenarios are envisioned with apparently different challenges to the security of countries. First, both the collapse of the USSR and its consequences (re-emergence of nationalism content, secessions, technology transfer military – to developing countries, the proliferation of failed states) and the spread of international terrorism, presented an overview marked by uncertainty about the new threats.