Monthly Archives: August 2013

History Of Billiard Game

History Origin of snooker billiards Talking about the origin of the billiard game, you can not set the time of its appearance. We only know that she, like chess, a very ancient origin, and birthplace Billiards is Asia, according to some – India, according to others – China. However, in European countries prior to their appearance principles of modern snooker were already established in some games. On the very name of the game There are several opinions. English author John Wilk, for example, noted that the original billiard game was called bal-uerds composed of Saxon words: bal (ball) and yerds (stick). Other sources mention that that the word 'pool' is derived from the French. bille (the ball).

Technical improvements have first billiard table billiard tables were a lot of technical imperfections. Thus, the board was not elastic and balls, hitting on them, were not reflected. Coarse cues – clubs could not give the ball sideways rotation, a board on which the rolling ball was not very smooth and solid, the game looked very primitive. Further, since the end of the XVI century, there is improvement billiards. Simple holes (pockets) in the sides are equipped with mesh pockets, and the number of pockets successively reduced to six. The sides of the table lined with wool, and later okantovyvayutsya rubber, making them more elastic and allowed to better reflect the balls.

Billiard board handled more carefully. Moreover, as the board and the board began to jacket cloth. Gradually gave way to a short stick long cue stick, the game takes a completely different character and interest in billiards sharply. Form of billiard tables billiard table Improvements affected his form. Square, then six, octagonal and even a round table in the end gets firmly established modern rectangular in shape, in which, regardless of the pool, maintained strict proportionality: the length of the table is always twice its width. It turned out that such a rectangular shape, consisting of two squares, has over other forms of a number of these significant advantages: possible to arrange for an equal distance from one another six pockets, that is the most appropriate quantity, since any different number of pockets are too easy or, conversely, complicates the game. During the game, it became possible to get from the long sides of each ball, which is in the middle of the table. Changed and the size of billiard tables. Experience and practice have shown that the most interesting game may be in the big pool. Improvement of the cue and the cue undergone changes. As mentioned above, the first cue was more like a club, but in the XIX century, he finds a modern look, only to end dipped in plaster. It does not allow players to make any movement to the ball. The French player has entered Mengo innovation – it is the end of the cue obbil skin, and it allowed him to do very complex beats: the ball rotated, moved along a curved trajectory, he suddenly stopped and rolled back. The benefits of billiards Billiards – a great tool rest. It relieves stress accumulated in the first few minutes. Playing almost completely distracted from everyday detail and is given an exciting match. Billiards balances the emotions and develops a number of qualities necessary for people in my life. He teaches the win, exerting all the force of will, and to overcome the resistance of an opponent. Billiards learn and play – without going into panic or despair or losing faith in himself.

Graphic Design

Condition for a successful mastery of technical skills are the ability to read blueprints and knowledge of the rules for their implementation and execution. Drawing is one of the main carriers of technological information, without which it can not do any production. At the present time we can not imagine the work and development of many sectors of the economy, as well as science and technology without drawings. To the newly created devices, machines and facilities, first develop drawings. On them determine their strengths and weaknesses, make changes in design. Only after discussing the drawings make samples of the product. Engineers, workers and technicians must be able to read blueprints in order to understand as the design itself and the work submitted articles, as well as to express their technical ideas using drawings. The drawings are extensively used in schools in the study of general technical, theoretical, and special items.

Drawing – one of the main subjects, which teaches the implementation and reading blueprints. Technical Graphics has begun to develop a very long time, about the middle of the xvii century. And have survived some of the drawings and drawings show the high art of their performance. Since the beginning of the xviii century. Technical drawing increasingly giving way to the drawing. Already at that time were necessary drawings rather complex products and structures, and to perform such drawings needed special training. All objects around us (eg, machines, appliances, machinery, buildings or parts thereof) can be represented as they are transmitted to our eyes – with the help of drawings or photographs. The technique also adopted another way of their image – in the form of drawings.

Item passed on the drawing visible from different angles. This allows us to pass on the drawing shape object and specify all the sizes needed for its manufacture. Unlike Drawing from drawing and photography is what the drawing objects passed by special rules. Figure depicts the subject of its length, height and width so as to see him drawing, ie, the 1-meter images. However, the figure parts of the object are transferred to some how distortion. For example, cylindrical holes are shown in the figure as oval, square corners – in the form of blunt and sharp, and the rectangular surface – in the form of parallelograms. Same shortcomings owns and picture. Distorted due to the transfer of shapes and sizes of objects in drawings and photographs they use the technique only as aids to the image. On the drawing shape the object is passed, usually several images. Any construction and any industry – from the usual stick to the modern airplane – is impossible without a preliminary design drawing.

Mark Brick

Double (or ceramic stone GOST), size 250 x 120 x 140 mm. Also saves the cost of the solution and the time of construction, as well as money, as more expensive single half, but their size twice. But they produce only hollow bricks. 4. Module size 288 x 138 x 63 mm. Depending on the presence of voids divided by brick: 1. Full-bodied, with a small amount of voids, at least 13%.

This brick used to build load-bearing elements and massive structures that must withstand heavy loads. Solid may be a private, face bricks. 2. Hollow, with a large amount of voids, sometimes more than 50%. This kind of Brick has a high thermal insulation in comparison to full-bodied, but still it is much easier, so the walls of a brick can be thinner than in corpulent, but also more and more light. But when you use it difficulties may arise: voids can beat solution, and then his advantage – thermal insulation – is lost. Do not let it be by using a more dense solution, and brick with smaller voids.

Perforated brick less corpulent, since its production is less raw material. Hollow and can be private, face bricks. A special group is isolated EABASSOC Foamed brick. He has a porous structure they have even higher insulating properties than hollow. To make the brick porous clay preparation stage it added charcoal, straw, peat or sawdust that are burned during firing. Mark Brick characterizes its strength and is one of the main characteristics of the nomenclature. It is denoted by the letter M and the number. Number – is the limit of compressive strength is measured in kg/cm2. There are the following brands of ceramic bricks: M50, M75, M100, M125, M150, M175, M200, M250, M300. For accommodation is particularly important, another characteristic – frost. It depends on the moisture absorption of the product: the moisture absorption is lower the more durable the product. The less water will collect bricks, the less he will be subject to destruction during freezing. Dehumidification brick varies from 6% to 16%. Denoted by SSE and the number of frost, which characterizes the number of cycles of freezing. There is the following Classification of bricks by frost: SSE 15, SSE 25, SSE 35, SSE 50, SSE 100. Modern standards and regulate less important parameters. This is not surprising, since the destruction of the structure can lead to tragic cases. Fortunately, at this time technology had made considerable progress and the need to orient themselves in the most subtle little things occur only in the implementation of highly complex projects. Therefore, the construction of private houses, as rule. reduced to a choice of one type of basic bricks, several types of finishing.


Reply scientist – Kabbalist Michael Laitman Any of our actions and 'before' and 'after' – in advance is the Creator's plan, there arose in us as an idea and shape to the action, which also can not be done outside of the program Creator. We are always in Him! Over descend wishes and thoughts, and we, as a result of hiding the source, we believe that they are – our own. Even before we want something or think, desire, and thought 'we' descend from above, from the Creator, and then we both want and think. A man in his limited visibility of what is happening, thinks that he himself creates desires and thoughts that he can make a difference in this world, his physical actions. This is possible only through the top, the Creator, the light – O'M. So what advice to calm down, all of the scientists commissioned by the Creator of puppets … Collider – Black Hole – End of the World


Initially, the company had proposed that you affect 8,500 workers. The three-year plan will be voluntary. There are three bands of compensation: under the age of 53, from 53 to 61 years, and from 61 to 65. Telefonica of Spain will assume the total cost of the employment reduction record of the workers concerned, including unemployment and social security for their membership dues payment, so it has reduced the maximum number of employees within a period of three years from 6,500 to 8,500. Telefonica sources pointed out that to bear the full cost of the ERE, a portion of the funds that were earmarked for the reduction of employment must employ the payment of costs that normally assumes the State by what the most affected will be 6,500 fixed telephony, 20% of the template, the same number as announced initially.

The same sources pointed out that although they have no obligation to assume these costs, they understand that Telefonica is a company l for the Spanish economy. First meeting of the negotiations to link ERE to the collective agreement which is now negotiating in parallel, the validity of this would also at age three. The management of Telefonica and unions held this Tuesday the first meeting of the negotiation of the ERE whose memory was filed last Thursday with the Ministry of labour. According to sources from the trade unions, the address has raised a social plan of reduction of employment to three years for a maximum of 6,500 workers, voluntary, universal and non-discriminatory. Several groups plan envisages compensation for Strip workers age of 53 years wishing to adhere to the plan; Another Strip from 53 to 65 years who would charge a 34% 66% of salary and from 61 to 61 years since then could ask for early retirement, and a third strip of 61 to 65 years. UGT, which since it was discussed the possibility of Telefonica to assume the cost, was shown counteracts this possibility, pointed out at the meeting its total opposition to this measure as well as the proposal of the company. For his part CC OO which along with UGT is majority Union, pointed out in a press release that the social plan delivered by Telefonica does not correspond to the presented memory last week by what must be removed and present a new and which confirms that the initial plan not assumed nor consensus nor a request from trade unions.

He accuses Telefonica of improvisation and says that she is not aware that plays with the expectations of the template. ERE with fewer benefits, according to CC OO CC OO defends that the cost of the ERE is being funded with public money but that the fact that Telefonica paid entirely cannot mean a cut in the provision or a change in conditions. He says that according to the approaches of this Tuesday, the ERE would be lower benefits than the previous ones of past years. ERE negotiations resume next Tuesday and the negotiators have 30 days to reach an agreement. Telefonica sources stressed the intention of the operator to continue to invest in the sector in Spain and recalled that in 2010 its investments accounted for 40% made by the entire sector, with an increase of 4% on the previous year. Source of the news: Telefonica will assume the total cost of the ERE, which will cut 6,500 workers